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Unearthing the Shadows of the Past: Feudalism in Pakistan


Areesha Qayyum

In the heart of South Asia, Pakistan stands as a nation with a rich and diverse history. Yet, beneath its modern façade lies a lingering relic of the past – feudalism. The specter of feudalism continues to cast its shadow over Pakistan, impacting its social, economic, and political landscape. This article explores the roots of feudalism in Pakistan, its present manifestations, and the challenges it poses to the nation’s progress.

Feudalism has deep-seated roots in Pakistan’s history, dating back to the Mughal era when vast landholdings were granted to nobility in exchange for loyalty and military service. However, the colonial era intensified the system, as British rulers recognized and perpetuated the power of local landlords, or ‘zamindars,’ who played pivotal roles in revenue collection and maintaining social order.

Following Pakistan’s independence in 1947, feudalism persisted and even thrived. Land reforms were introduced in the early years, but their implementation remained sporadic and largely ineffective. The zamindari system was replaced with the ‘Sardari’ system in the tribal areas, where tribal chiefs retained enormous influence over their communities.

Feudalism’s most significant impact is felt at the societal level. The feudal lords wield substantial power and influence over their localities, often functioning as de facto rulers. This dominance extends to all aspects of life, from property disputes to political affiliations, and even the allocation of resources.

One of the most glaring consequences is the perpetuation of a rigid social hierarchy, with the feudal elite at the top and the rural masses at the bottom. This system has hindered social mobility, with education and economic opportunities often limited to those with ties to the feudal class. As a result, poverty and illiteracy rates remain high in rural areas.


Feudalism’s impact on Pakistan’s economy is profound. Large landholdings often remain unutilized or underutilized, contributing to inefficiencies in agriculture. Additionally, the concentration of land in the hands of a few has led to unequal land distribution, limiting access to land for landless farmers.

Moreover, the feudal class often exploits their political influence to maintain their economic interests. They control local markets, set prices, and have a significant say in the allocation of government resources, perpetuating an environment of corruption and economic disparity.

Perhaps the most glaring aspect of feudalism’s influence in Pakistan is its hold over the political landscape. Feudal lords often dominate politics at both the local and national levels. They control voter blocs through their patronage networks, making it difficult for independent and merit-based politics to flourish.

Furthermore, the feudal elite’s control over political parties means that policies and legislation are often shaped to protect their interests. This leads to a disconnect between the government and the needs of the common citizen.

The continued presence of feudalism in Pakistan poses several challenges to the nation’s progress. To address this issue, comprehensive land reforms must be enacted, ensuring equitable land distribution and providing landless farmers with access to resources. Educational opportunities in rural areas must be expanded to break the cycle of poverty and illiteracy.

Moreover, political reforms are essential to reduce the influence of feudal lords in politics. A transparent and merit-based political system can help pave the way for a more accountable and responsive government.

Feudalism remains a deeply entrenched issue in Pakistan, affecting its social fabric, economic prospects, and political landscape. Addressing this problem requires a multi-pronged approach, including land reforms, increased access to education, and political reform. By confronting the shadows of the past, Pakistan can move towards a brighter and more equitable future for all its citizens.

— The writer is a student of BS Journalism in University of the Punjab 

Disclaimer: The views expressed in this article are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the official policy or position of Lahore Mirror